Что такое сантименты на бирже
Перейти к содержимому

Что такое сантименты на бирже

  • автор:

How Sentiment Analysis in Stock Market Used for Right Prediction?

Vikram Singh Bisen

T he stock market is one of the most sensitive fields, where the sentiments of the people can change the trend of the entire market. Actually, there are many factors, affect the movement of the stock market and, the sentiments of the traders are also one of them that drive the market.

At the present time, stock market investment plays an inevitable role in the finance sector, as high stock market value is considered as the parameter of high economies.

The volatile nature of the stock market has equal chances for earning money and losing money as well. But if the situation can be predicted, investors can make a profit or minimize their losses.

Hence, AI companies are now using sentiment analysis in the stock market to predict the market trend or movement of a particular stock. And social media is one of the best platforms to understand the sentiments of the people trading or investing in the stock market or other financial instruments that are traded on various exchanges.

What is Sentiment Analysis and How it Works?

Sentiment analysis is basically the process of analyzing the sentiments of people through various platforms like social media and similar websites, where people can freely express their feelings and opinions about anything they think.

And classification of such sentiments can be done at the phrase level, sentence level, and document level. The sentiment analysis uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to divide the language units into three categories: Negative, Positive and Neutral.

Sentiment Analysis: How it Works & Everything You Need to Know

Understanding the sentiments of the people is not easy unless they express their feelings, opinions and perspective…

Sentiment Analysis in Social Media

Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin are the leading social media networking sites, where people share their opinions and express their feelings that show their sentiments. Here people also discuss what they think whether they are experts in that field or not.

And access to social media platforms through portable devices like smartphones is making it easier for people to post the contents and spread their views on various topics. And here sensitive news including fake news or rumours also spread at a very fast pace

Such news or information influences the people around the globe and if the news is from the stock market, investors will be also influenced and they will take the decision of buying or selling of stock accordingly, that will have a positive or negative impact on the price of the stocks trading on exchanges.

How Sentiments Analysis Used in Stock Market Prediction?

Actually, sentiment analysis and the stock market is a well-researched problem. As there are already lots of forces behind the movement of the stock market or particular share of a company.

Maybe due to negative sentiment, the stock price goes down or if there are any positive sentiments the stock prices increased because of these optimistic sentiments.

Although, there is no single technique to predict the stock movement accurately, so researchers have done lots of experiments to get better results.

But due to the universal use of social media websites, they can be considered as important in the prediction of stock movements, as investors share their opinions and thoughts in the media.

And when you analyze such social media platforms or microblogging websites using sentiment analysis you can get some idea what people are talking about and what they think about a particular stock.

The contents of Social Media such as posts, tweets, photos are analyzed by people of different communities such as politicians, marketers, and analysts, etc, to make the right decision while investing in such markets.

Social Media Contents Based for Real-Time Sentiment Analysis in Stock Market Predictions

Social media is playing a key role in sentiment analysis on the stock market. Even, over the past few years, the influence of social media sites on everyday life has become so large that even information on large and small incidents or disasters is obtained through social media sites.

And due to the influence social ripple effect of social media sites, diverse studies are in progress to analyze the contents generated online. Social media content analyses are conducted in diverse methods, and for diverse purposes.

Among several contents, especially those texts that are firsthand written by the users contain the most direct and important information.

Since contents are created according to the user’s intentions the time of creation time also becomes an important factor in social media contents based on real-time sentiment analysis in stock prediction.

In the current era, the internet user’s popularity has grown fast equivalent to emerging technologies; that actively use online review sites, social networks and personal blogs to express their opinions.

And this provides an opportunity to know the positive and negative attitudes about people, organizations, places, events, and ideas.

The tools provided by natural language processing and machine learning along with other approaches to work with large volumes of text make it possible to begin extracting sentiments from social media.

Social Media Impact on the Stock Market

As we can see that in the modern world, people make judgments about the world around them when they are living in society. They make positive and negative attitudes about people, products, places and events. These types of attitudes can be considered as sentiments.

Sentiment analysis is the study of automated techniques for extracting sentiments from written languages. The growth of social media has resulted in an explosion of publicly available, user-generated content moderation service to control such contents.

While such data and information can potentially be utilized to provide real-time insights into the sentiments of people.

Blogs, online forums, comment sections on media sites and social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter all can be considered as social media that can capture millions of peoples’ views or word of mouth.

Hence, communication and the availability of real-time opinions from people around the world make a revolution in computational linguistics and social network analysis.

And with time being, social media is becoming an increasingly more important source of information for anyone including investors trading in the stock markets.

Actually, when a piece of news comes in the market, people start talking about and give their positive or negative opinions that show their sentiments. That can be used by the sentiment analysis experts to predict the movement of the stock market or particular stock of a company.

While on the other hand people are more willing and happy to share the facts about their lives, knowledge, experiences, and thoughts with the entire world through social media more than before any platform of media sources.

Twitter Sentiment Analysis Machine Learning for Stock Prediction

The sentiment analysis task is very much field-specific. Tweets are classified as positive, negative, and neutral based on the sentiment present.

Out of the total tweets are examined by humans and annotated as 1 for Positive, 0 for Neutral and 2 for Negative emotions. For the classification of nonhuman annotated tweets, a machine learning model is trained whose features are extracted from the human-annotated tweets.

Such data is extracted from Twitter and various other similar platforms, and then used a training data set to train the AI model through sentiment analysis algorithms to predict the price of stocks in different scenarios.

Except, in extreme or unexpected conditions, most of the time, machine learning or deep learning-based models predict at very high accuracy helping stock market investors to earn money.


They actively participate in events by expressing their opinions and stating their comments that take place in society.

This way of sharing their knowledge and emotions with society and social media drives the businesses to collect more information about their companies, products and to know how reputed they are among the people and thereby make decisions to go on with their businesses effectively.

To understand the sentiments of people you need an expert, companies are providing the sentiment analysis services for the business enterprises, companies and organizations to understand their customers and offer them the most suitable product or services for better response.

What is Market Sentiment in Forex, and How It is Used in Trading

What Is Market Sentiment in Forex, and How It Is Used in Trading

In this overview, I will get you acquainted with such a notion as market sentiment in Forex. It helps confirm the current trend and warns you of its probable end.

What is market sentiment?

The market sentiment means the prevailing mood of most market participants at a certain moment. The word “sentiment” is of French origin and means “feeling, mood”. Market sentiment shows what market participants are currently keen on – buying a financial instrument (a group of assets) or selling it.

In other words, market sentiment is the current balance of traders’, investors’, and other market players’ optimism and pessimism about a certain financial market or asset. This is some sort of collective emotion based on certain expectations. The expectations are formed, as a rule, by the news and various fundamental factors.

For example, if market participants are sure that the stock market will be growing, they start buying shares actively and thus support the bullish trend. On the contrary, if most players are sure that the stock price will be falling, and a bearish trend will appear – they will start selling assets that they expect to decline soon. As a result, market supply will become excessive, making the price drop.

Forex market sentiment shows what most market participants prefer to do now: buy or sell currencies. Traders use such expressions as “buy bucks” — this means traders are ready to buy the USD against other currencies, or “sell bucks” — which means traders are ready to sell the USD against other currencies.

Market sentiment and expectations are influenced by several factors. Factors that support the currency rate form positive sentiment (moods to buy). Factors that drive the currency down form negative market sentiment (moods to sell). Check below the factors that influence Forex market sentiment.

What factors influence Forex market sentiment?

Market sentiment is mostly influenced by so-called fundamental factors. They include various financial, economic, and political events that influence directly currency rates. Such factors are studied by fundamental analysis. Here are the most important of such factors:

  • Monetary policy of Central banks: cycles of increasing and decreasing the main interest rate can form long-term uptrends and downtrends in the national currency. If market players expect the rate to grow, the market sentiment will be bullish: market players will be ready to buy. If a decrease in the interest rate is expected, things go vice versa.
  • Economic factors: if the news about the country’s economy is positive (GDP, employment, production, etc.), market sentiment about the currency improves.
  • Political factors: elections, government resignations, scandals, sanctions, etc. can form negative market sentiment towards a currency.
  • Rumors and expectations: they include political and economic factors but in the form of rumors and expectations.
  • Force majeure: natural disasters, man-made disasters, terror acts, epidemics. All this can form serious negative sentiment towards a currency.

The influence of fundamental factors on Forex market sentiment can be short-term (several minutes to several days) or long-term (several weeks, months, years). For example, information about the growth of unemployment last month can have a short-term negative effect on market sentiment, while an announcement of the CB head about the necessity to increase interest rates can form a long-term positive sentiment to a currency.

Indicators for assessing Forex market sentiment

To detect the current market sentiment, various indicators can be used. They try to evaluate market sentiment and express it in digits or graphically. By them, one can conclude on the current positions and opinions of traders and how they can influence price moves.
Here are three popular indicators for assessing Forex sentiment.

The DXY (US dollar index) is the main index that shows the current market sentiment towards the leading world’s currency. The direction in which the index goes (the current trend) reflects the actual market balance. The growth of the index means positive market sentiment and the growth of the USD against major currencies, while the decline of the index means negative sentiment and weakening of the major currency.

The DXY is traded in exchanges as futures and options. By tech analysis, you can analyze the chart of the index and detect the current sentiment towards the USD: positive, negative, or neutral. You can find the DXY chart on various informational resources such as tradingview.com.

US Dollar index price chart

COT reports on currency futures

A COT (Commitments of Traders) report is a weekly publication showing aggregate positions of various players of futures markets. The COT is published every Friday by the US CFTC. Though this data refers to futures, they correlate strongly with the Forex market.

COT show clean long and short positions in futures on currencies (and other assets) of three groups of traders:

  • Commercial Hedgers are large companies and entities that use the futures market to hedge their risks in the currency and spot markets. They influence the general sentiment moderately.
  • Large Traders are major institutional investors, hedge funds, and other organizations trading in the futures market in order to invest and make profits. The sentiment of this group is more important.
  • Small Traders: most of this category consists of private market players or small companies. Their influence on the market is scarce.

You can track the market sentiment of currency futures by the COT on various analytical resources, such as finviz.com. Under the charts of currency futures, you can find a diagram where the three groups of traders enumerated above are represented by three lines. When the lines are positive, buying positions prevail, while when the lines are in the negative area, this means selling positions dominate.

COT reports — JPY futures

Moving Averages

Another popular and demonstrative instrument for assessing the sentiment is the Moving Averages. They show the average value of the chosen currency pair in a certain period. If the price rises above the average, this means the current sentiment is positive; if it drops below the average, the sentiment is negative.

To assess short-term sentiment, use the MA with a short period (from 5 to 50), for long-term sentiments – the MA with a larger period (100, 200). For example, when the price crosses the 200-days SMA from below, this means the sentiment is becoming positive, and an uptrend might be starting. And vice versa, if the quotations drop below the 200-days SMA, this means negative sentiment and promises a downtrend.

USD/JPY price crosses the 200-days SMA

Using Forex sentiment in trading

I would single out systems of using market sentiment in trading. The first strategy presumes using the sentiment for confirming the current market trend, i.e. it helps you choose the main direction n which you will trade. The second strategy presumes the use of signals for the end of the current trend and the beginning of a correction or even a reversal.

Confirming the current trend

You can use the indicators described above. When the indicators are not too close to their extremes, they can help you confirm the current trend:

  1. The DXY demonstrates an uptrend (positive sentiment towards the dollar) or a downtrend (negative sentiment towards the dollar).
  2. The diagram based on the COT shows when Large Traders start changing their position: if they go negative, this confirms a downtrend, and if they go positive – an uptrend.
  3. When the D1 chart crosses the 200-days SMA upwards, this confirms an uptrend, and if it crosses it downwards, this means a downtrend.
  4. News: positive news supports uptrends, and negative news supports downtrends.
  1. The chart has risen above the 200-days SMA.
  2. The DXY demonstrates an ascending move.
  3. The COT lines on the JPY futures are not at the extreme, the lines of Large Traders set off downwards (sell the yen against the dollar).
  4. The news is positive, stock markets are growing – this supports the growth of USD/JPY.

All in all, the indicators of the sentiment support an uptrend in the pair; use tech analysis to find entry points for buying positions.

USD/JPY — confirming the current trend

Signals of possible corrections and reversals

When the indicators reach their extremes, or their signals change for the opposite ones, this warns you of a probable correction or reversal:

  1. The DXY changes direction; reversal patterns might form.
  2. The COT diagram demonstrates extremes, the lines of Large Traders and Commercial Hedgers demonstrate a serious divergence.
  3. The price chart opens quite far away from the 200-days SMA, after which it starts the opposite move, closing faster MAs (such as 7, 14).
  4. News: positive news provokes a positive correction, and negative do correspondingly.

After a strong ascending impulse on the D1 of USD/JPY, there appeared signals for a possible correction or a reversal downwards:

  1. The chart of the pair is far away from the 200-days SMA, then crosses the faster MAs (7,14) from above.
  2. The DXY has reversed downwards.
  3. The COT lines of the yen futures show the year’s extremes, the lines of Large Traders and Commercial Hedgers have diverged maximally.
  4. The news is neutral.

The indicators signal that USD/JPY has begun a descending correction. Abstain from buying; you can even use tech analysis to find entry points for short-term sales.

USD/JPY — signals of possible corrections and reversals

Closing thoughts

Forex market sentiment reflects the prevailing mood of the currency market. By various indicators, you can assess who is dominating the market – bulls (believing in the growth of the currency) or bears (count on its decline). Forex market sentiment is a useful supplement to the rules of fundamental and technical analysis.

Market Sentiments Meaning, Definition, and Overview

Market sentiments are the driving force that can influence the demand and supply as well as move the price. This is why it can be both bullish and bearish depending on the movement direction. For instance, sentiments can be bearish, if the price falls or bullish when it rises.

To identify and define sentiments, traders utilize an array of technical indicators integrated into the trading platform or framework. Additionally, they can opt for extra tools and forms of analysis that make it possible to refine reliable signals for market entry or exit. If an investor is able to recognize the mood correctly. It will help to get maximum return.


In this article, we will not only define sentiments meaning but also review some of the top indicators traders use to understand them.

What Is Sentiment?

The sentiments meaning corresponds to the investors’ mood or attitude in references to a specific instrument, asset, or security. The term could be described as traders’ feeling about the market tone that also reflects the overall market psychology depending on the price activity and movement.

To make things a bit simpler, when the price goes up, it represents bullish market sentiment. If it falls, it shows a bearish market tone. The key features to consider when defining the sentiments meaning are as follows:

  • The term refers to the overall attitude towards a traded asset.
  • It can be bearish or bullish depending on the price movement.
  • To measure sentiments, traders use specific technical indicators.

Understanding the Market Sentiments Meaning

Also known as “investor sentiment”, is a part of the trading fundamentals. It can influence technical indicators. This is why technical analysts and day traders use it regularly. It makes it possible for them to measure not only short-term movements of the asset price but also profit and potential returns. The results will generally rely on the overall investors’ mood and attitude towards a traded security.

At the same time, sentiments appear to be a helpful tool for so-called contrarian investors. Those are traders who tend to oppose the general market movement. In other words, if the majority of people buy an asset, contrarian traders are very likely to sell it.

Experts are used to describing sentiments as bearish or bullish. The concept is quite simple:

  1. When bears take control over the market, the stock price goes down.
  2. When bulls are in charge of the situation, the stock price goes up.

While the financial market is often driven by participants’ emotions, we cannot say that sentiments can fully rely on fundamentals, as they mainly refer to business performance. On the other hand, investors find it possible to identify over and undervalued stocks using sentiments. It can be achieved with the help of different technical (sentiment) indicators.

Download MT4 SE banner

Market Sentiment Indicators

The following can be used to measure market sentiments and define the overall market mood as well as if it is bearish or bullish:

  • VIX – also known under the “fear index” moniker. Used together with moving averages to define if it is low or high.
  • High-Low Index – it is used to compare stocks that make 52-week highs and lows. As a rule, the indicator helps to underlie Nasdaq 100, S&P 500, and some other popular indices.
  • BPI — Bullish Percent Index can be applied to figure and point charts in an effort to measure the number of bullish stocks. If the reading gives BPI over 80%, the market sentiment looks extremely optimistic. If it falls down below 20%, it means that the market is oversold.

Those are only a few tools to measure sentiments. You may opt for moving averages and some other indicators. Just make sure you apply proper reading and some fundamental knowledge to put all facts together and decide on the next move.

This material does not contain and should not be construed as containing investment advice, investment recommendations, an offer of or solicitation for any transactions in financial instruments. Before making any investment decisions, you should seek advice from independent financial advisors to ensure you understand the risks.

  • MTrading execution quality is confirmed by VMT and complies with the best execution standards.
  • The interests of MTrading clients are protected by the Financial Commission's Compensation Fund for up to €20 000 per claim.
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms and Conditions
  • Terms of Business
  • AML Policies
  • Risk Disclosure

if you have any questions, please contact us via support@mtrading.com or use live chat

Finvest Solutions Limited registered at Unit 5, Long Stone House, PO box 1200, Main street, Charlestown, Nevis with registration number: 55504.
ServiceComsvg LLC registered at PO Box 2897, Euro House, Richmond Hill Road, Kingstown, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, VC0100 with registration number: 1593 LLC 2021.
© 2013 — 2023 MTrading
Risk warning: Trading contracts for differences on margin carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. There is a possibility that you may sustain a loss equal to or greater than your entire investment. Therefore, you should not invest or risk money that you cannot afford to lose. You should ensure you understand all of the risks. Before using Finvest Solutions Limited services please acknowledge the risks associated with trading. The content of this Website must not be construed as personal advice.
MTrading does not provide services to residents of certain jurisdictions, such as: Japan, the United States of America, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, and some other regions. For more information please refer to our FAQ section


Every trader, starting their trading activity in Forex, strives to increase their level of well-being, which should be facilitated by successful transactions with currency. In this regard, it is important to be able to navigate in such a concept as market sentiment. Understanding how the market works from the inside will certainly help a trader to choose the most effective automated Forex trading strategies. Conversely, the lack of information on this topic can lead to rash and chaotic decisions that carry the risk of loss.

How do you understand what market sentiment is in Forex? First of all, a trader should grasp the essence of this term in a generalized context, after which the knowledge gained can be considered in relation to automated Forex trading. In view of the fact that the definition of market sentiment applies to both the stock and financial markets in aggregate, in our today’s material we will consider the concept of market sentiment, first in the global, general economic sense, and then in relation to currency trading in Forex.

Thus, market sentiment is the opinion that investors form about a security or currency. The significance of such a factor as the market sentiment is extremely high, because the psychological sentiment of a large group of people has a significant impact on the development of various trends in the growth or decrease of prices for trading products. It is generally accepted that when prices abruptly go up, bulls become the main players in the market, and when the dynamics of growth is diminishing, bears dictate their market conditions. Most traders keep questioning themselves: how to practically use the concept of market sentiment to their advantage?

In order to thoroughly study the subject of market sentiment and learn how to apply this information to increase the profitability of automated trading in Forex, below we will turn to the topic of the sentiment of the participants in a particular market, since here the preconditions from which a certain market sentiment can play a key role. Having learned to understand both the psycho-emotional and the economic components of these processes, you will be able to more rationally and predictably plan the execution of transactions with currency in Forex.

How to interpret the sentiment of participants in different markets?

Experienced traders agree that the prevailing sentiment in a particular market, coming directly from investors, are far from always based on objective or average data. Since a single trader can follow those automated Forex trading strategies that suit them specifically, another trader has the right to choose completely opposite trading methods and algorithms. Hence, it shows that there is still no single foundation that sets the tone for all market trends.

In order for you to imagine the big picture more clearly, we will give the following example. Specialists in the technical analysis field and day traders rely on market sentiment because technical indicators are affected by market sentiment correspondingly. This means that the forecasts for profit due to short-term price changes and, in fact, the profit itself is largely dependent on dynamically changing market sentiment. In addition, there is such a trading strategy in Forex, when the investor may trade in the direction totally opposite to the market sentiment.

As we can see from this example, different sentiment of market participants form diametrically opposite trading trends, and it is not possible to predict for sure how a particular trader will organize his automated trading in Forex, because this already refers to the sphere of personal psychology of a person, and not only to objective economic realities. The mechanisms of earning money from different investors can be very diverse, therefore, depending on market sentiment, the following types are distinguished:


  • trading on the upward price trend (bullish market sentiment);
  • trading on a price decline trend (bearish market sentiment);
  • trading on overvalued or undervalued assets.

If we talk about the sentiment of market participants in a general sense, then during a period when the stock market is controlled by bulls, the value of securities, including stocks, investment shares and bonds, increases. The opposite is the process of falling prices for stock assets when the bears rule the market. It is believed that market sentiment is inextricably linked with the concept of a fundamental, base price, which, in turn, is already an indicator of the efficiency and reliability of a particular business.

Another interesting trading strategy is making a profit from the sale of shares, the value of which was initially either overvalued or undervalued. As a rule, in order for transactions in securities to be truly profitable, investors of this kind prefer to build on indicators of market sentiment. Of course, it will also be useful for currency traders in Forex to learn about such methods of measuring and predicting market sentiment, in connection with which we turn to the concept of market indicators.

How to measure market sentiment?

To find and select the optimal moment when transactions would bring the maximum profit to the trader, most experienced investors resort to using special indicators of market sentiment. Beginners who are just planning to start developing and testing automated Forex trading strategies should also know what indicators are implied here. Among them, there are four main types, and these indicators influence market sentiment. Let’s take a closer look at them:

  • maximum-minimum;
  • fear index (or Roman numerals VIX);
  • moving averages;
  • bullish index (expressed as a percentage).

How to correctly interpret market sentiment in terms of the “high-low” parameter? This index allows you to compare assets that have reached an absolute price maximum in 52 weeks with those assets that have fallen in price to a minimum over the same period. Threshold indicators within this index are the numbers 30 and 70, that is, the marks of the minimum and maximum prices. At the lowest reading of 30 points, bearish sentiment prevails in the market, and at the highest, bullish.

Any Forex trader will need to know about the so-called fear index. This index is most relevant to the value of options, but basic knowledge of the VIX index will be useful even when testing automated Forex trading strategies. If this index rises, it signals the need for asset insurance. Accordingly, the fear index itself speaks of the volatility, instability of the market, its increasing volatility, therefore, in this situation, a trader needs to take urgent measures to protect capital or any other assets from risks.

Moving averages are another index for determining market sentiment. This indicator is obtained over a fairly long period of time, and its identification takes from 50 to 200 days. Thus, a sample of 50 and 200 days is used, where the short-term moving average crosses the long-term one, forming “the golden cross”. If at the same time the trading momentum tends to shift upward, then this indicates bullish market sentiment. The reverse trend forms “the death cross” and is an indicator of bearish sentiment.

Finally, the last in our list of market sentiment indices is the Bullish Percent Index, measured purely as a percentage. This index refers primarily to stocks and calculates their number on the basis of figure and dot charts. Neutral markets are considered to contain no more than 50% bullish, while so-called “bullish” markets with a BPI of 80% and above signal the result of over-buying of stocks. The BPI-based market sentiment forecast is interpreted as negative if the index is 20%, which means, assets are already oversold.

Market sentiment in the context of Forex trading

Having a basic knowledge of what market sentiment is and how to measure it using various indicators, a trader is already helping himself by having useful information about the internal structure of the market. It would be natural to assume that this information should be useful to a novice trader when looking for the best Forex trading strategy and when setting up a robot assistant to the required parameters of automated trading. Understanding the economic structure of the market allows you to timely anticipate risky transaction scenarios.

Of course, it is difficult to absolutely accurately identify market sentiment in order to reduce risks to zero, but this measure serves as a good analytical tool for reducing or preventing unprofitable transactions, that is, with a competent assessment of the current market situation, even a novice trader will be able to benefit from emerging trends and trade profitably in Forex. What factors should you always take into account to improve the effectiveness of your automated trading strategy?

First of all, summing up our review, we recall that it is necessary to take into account the micro- and macroeconomic environment, which has a colossal impact on market sentiment. Any crucial social and political events, as well as unforeseen incidents, entail a series of changes in the price range for assets. The ability to correctly read the market sentiment indices and not to lose sight of the psychological component of trading will allow a trader to improve his skills in conducting transactions in Forex.

In order to take advantage of the newly acquired knowledge about market sentiment without any significant harm to your deposit, a reasonable measure for a novice trader would be to pre-test automated Forex trading strategies using a bot – an expert advisor, in which you can set adequate exit values from a trade in advance and make a profit. In this scenario, the trading process will be much safer for the trader, and the study of market sentiment will become an interesting analytical experience, which will certainly come in handy when making large transactions that can bring tangible profits.

Leave a Comment Cancel Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *